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SAP Press - Transportation Management with SAP TM

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文件介绍

• Plan and optimize: Improve service, maximize use, and reduce costs
• Manage: Process orders, schedule bookings, and tender shipments
• Integrate: Utilize the full potential of SAP ERP, EWM, Event Management, and GTS
• Based on TM 9.0 and 9.1

Moving products from point A to point B is only one piece of the transportation management puzzle. Make your transportation processes transparent, accessible, and adaptable with this guide to SAP Transportation Management functionality and configuration. Master the individual SAP TM components and their practical application so you can flexibly respond to changing regulations, traceability requirements, and tight deadlines. Get in the driver’s seat with this one-stop resource on SAP TM.

End-to-End Management
See how the SAP TM ecosystem supports your transportation processes from order management to charge calculation to tracking and analysis.

Master Data
Examine the foundation for SAP TM processes: customer data, vendor data, and organizational data, as well as network- and resource-specific master data.

Order Management
Learn how transportation orders are created in SAP TM and bi-directionally integrated with SAP ERP.

Case Studies
Apply tips from outbound shipment, ocean forwarding, and air freight shipment case studies to your transportation processes.

SAP TM 9.1 Preview
Get updated content for SAP TM 9.0 and a sneak peek at the new functionality, UI, and analytics in SAP TM 9.1.

Highlights  

• Technical and solution architecture
• Master data
• Order management
• Capacity management
• Planning and optimization
• Execution and monitoring
• Compliance
• Carrier selection and subcontracting
• Charge calculation and settlement
• Warehouse integration
• Reporting
• Integration with SAP ERP, EWM, GTS, and Event Management

The Authors

Bernd Lauterbach, Dominik Metzger, Stefan Sauer, Jens Kappauf, Jens Gottlieb, and Christopher Sürie offer over 50 years of combined logistics expertise, practical SAP Transportation Management experience, industry insight, and technical know-how.

Table of Contents

  • ... Foreword ... 17

  • ... Introduction ... 21

  • 1 ... SAP Transportation Management Foundations ... 43

  • 1.1 ... SAP Business Suite and SAP NetWeaver ... 43

  • 1.1.1 ... Layers and Components of an SAP System ... 44

  • 1.1.2 ... SAP NetWeaver Application Platform ... 47

  • 1.1.3 ... SAP NetWeaver Functions that Support Business Applications ... 50

  • 1.1.4 ... Important Business Concepts in SAP Systems ... 53

  • 1.1.5 ... SAP NetWeaver Application Components ... 56

  • 1.2 ... SAP TM as Part of the SAP Business Suite ... 58

  • 1.2.1 ... SAP TM ... 60

  • 1.2.2 ... SAP ERP ... 61

  • 1.2.3 ... SAP Event Management ... 66

  • 1.2.4 ... SAP Environment, Health, and Safety Management ... 67

  • 1.2.5 ... SAP Global Trade Services ... 67

  • 1.2.6 ... SAP Extended Warehouse Management ... 68

  • 1.2.7 ... SAP Advanced Planner and Optimizer ... 69

  • 1.2.8 ... SAP Customer Relationship Management ... 70

  • 1.2.9 ... SAP Billing and Revenue Innovation Management ... 72

  • 1.3 ... Functional Overview of SAP TM ... 73

  • 1.3.1 ... Mode of Operation of SAP TM ... 78

  • 1.3.2 ... Overview of the Following Chapters ... 85

  • 2 ... Solution Architecture and Technological Concepts ... 89

  • 2.1 ... Technological Foundation of SAP TM ... 91

  • 2.1.1 ... Storing Data in the BOPF ... 92

  • 2.1.2 ... Data Processing with the BOPF ... 99

  • 2.1.3 ... Business Add-ins ... 104

  • 2.2 ... User Interface Technologies ... 106

  • 2.2.1 ... Floorplan Manager and Floorplan Manager BOPF Integration ... 109

  • 2.2.2 ... Defining User-Specific Roles and Menus ... 112

  • 2.2.3 ... Filtering Roles for SAP NWBC ... 114

  • 2.2.4 ... Customizing Screen Areas ... 116

  • 2.3 ... Frameworks and Tools Used throughout SAP TM ... 116

  • 2.3.1 ... Condition Framework Using BRF+ ... 117

  • 2.3.2 ... Incompatibilities ... 125

  • 2.3.3 ... Post-Processing Framework ... 129

  • 2.3.4 ... Document Creation ... 132

  • 2.3.5 ... Optimizer ... 132

  • 2.3.6 ... SAP Visual Business ... 133

  • 2.3.7 ... Process Controller Framework ... 135

  • 2.4 ... Integration Technology with SAP TM ... 136

  • 2.4.1 ... SOA-based Integration with SAP NetWeaver PI ... 137

  • 2.4.2 ... Integration with SAP NetWeaver PI without Predefined Content ... 145

  • 2.4.3 ... Monitoring Integration Messages with Service Interfaces ... 148

  • 2.4.4 ... RFC-based Communication ... 150

  • 2.5 ... Conclusion ... 151

  • 3 ... Master Data ... 153

  • 3.1 ... General Master Data ... 155

  • 3.1.1 ... Organizational Structure ... 156

  • 3.1.2 ... Product ... 165

  • 3.1.3 ... Dangerous Goods ... 170

  • 3.1.4 ... Business Partner ... 177

  • 3.1.5 ... Transferring Master Data between SAP ERP and SAP TM ... 184

  • 3.2 ... Transportation Network ... 193

  • 3.2.1 ... Locations ... 194

  • 3.2.2 ... Transportation Zones ... 199

  • 3.2.3 ... Transportation Lanes ... 204

  • 3.2.4 ... Schedules ... 211

  • 3.2.5 ... Transshipment Locations ... 226

  • 3.2.6 ... Default Routes ... 230

  • 3.2.7 ... Trade Lanes ... 236

  • 3.2.8 ... Transportation Network Cockpit and Overview POWL ... 238

  • 3.2.9 ... Integration of Geographical Information Systems ... 242

  • 3.3 ... Resources ... 246

  • 3.3.1 ... Vehicles and Trailers ... 247

  • 3.3.2 ... Calendars and Handling Resources ... 260

  • 3.3.3 ... Transportation Units and Equipment ... 262

  • 3.3.4 ... Defining Resources ... 265

  • 4 ... Transportation Requirements and Order Management ... 271

  • 4.1 ... Integration of SAP ERP Documents ... 273

  • 4.1.1 ... Sales Order Integration ... 276

  • 4.1.2 ... Integration of Materials Management Orders ... 281

  • 4.1.3 ... Order-based Transportation Requirement ... 282

  • 4.1.4 ... Integration of Deliveries ... 290

  • 4.1.5 ... Integration Scenarios ... 291

  • 4.1.6 ... Sales Order Scheduling ... 298

  • 4.2 ... Forwarding Orders and Forwarding Quotations ... 300

  • 4.2.1 ... Forwarding Orders ... 303

  • 4.2.2 ... Charge Estimation ... 336

  • 4.2.3 ... Forwarding Quotations ... 338

  • 4.2.4 ... Creating Orders and Quotations with Reference ... 344

  • 4.2.5 ... Summary ... 349

  • 5 ... Transportation Capacity Management ... 353

  • 5.1 ... Capacity Management Process ... 354

  • 5.1.1 ... Overview ... 354

  • 5.1.2 ... Systematically Creating Schedule-based Freight Documents ... 361

  • 5.1.3 ... Schedule Change Management ... 363

  • 5.2 ... Allocations ... 364

  • 5.3 ... Business Shares ... 372

  • 5.4 ... Freight Bookings ... 375

  • 5.4.1 ... Ocean Freight Bookings ... 376

  • 5.4.2 ... Air Freight Bookings ... 387

  • 6 ... Transportation Planning ... 393

  • 6.1 ... Freight Units ... 395

  • 6.1.1 ... Freight Unit Definition ... 395

  • 6.1.2 ... Properties of Freight Units ... 397

  • 6.1.3 ... Creating Freight Units ... 404

  • 6.2 ... Transportation Units ... 410

  • 6.2.1 ... Transportation Units, Freight Units, and Freight Orders ... 410

  • 6.2.2 ... Trailer Units ... 412

  • 6.2.3 ... Railcar Units ... 416

  • 6.3 ... Manual Planning ... 417

  • 6.3.1 ... Planning Strategies ... 418

  • 6.3.2 ... Profiles and Settings ... 419

  • 6.3.3 ... Configuring the Transportation Cockpit ... 427

  • 6.3.4 ... Hierarchical View and Dual View ... 435

  • 6.3.5 ... Using the Transportation Cockpit ... 443

  • 6.3.6 ... Transportation Proposal ... 454

  • 6.3.7 ... Scheduling ... 461

  • 6.4 ... Automated Planning ... 463

  • 6.4.1 ... Background Planning and Vehicle Scheduling and Routing ... 464

  • 6.4.2 ... Configuring Optimizer Settings ... 467

  • 6.4.3 ... Vehicle Scheduling and Routing: Planning Objectives ... 471

  • 6.4.4 ... Vehicle Scheduling and Routing: Planning Constraints ... 477

  • 6.4.5 ... Vehicle Scheduling and Routing: Optimization Algorithm ... 488

  • 6.4.6 ... Explanation Tool ... 489

  • 6.4.7 ... Load Optimization ... 492

  • 7 ... Carrier Selection and Subcontracting ... 495

  • 7.1 ... Carrier Selection ... 496

  • 7.1.1 ... Process ... 496

  • 7.1.2 ... Objective of the Carrier Selection Optimizer ... 500

  • 7.1.3 ... Constraints ... 505

  • 7.1.4 ... Configuration ... 511

  • 7.2 ... Freight Order Management ... 515

  • 7.2.1 ... Freight Order: Configuration and User Interface ... 516

  • 7.2.2 ... Special Processes with Freight Orders ... 526

  • 7.2.3 ... Service Orders ... 530

  • 7.3 ... Freight Tendering ... 532

  • 8 ... Transportation Execution and Monitoring ... 541

  • 8.1 ... Transportation Execution ... 542

  • 8.1.1 ... Document Creation ... 543

  • 8.1.2 ... Discrepancies ... 554

  • 8.1.3 ... Export/Import Processing ... 557

  • 8.1.4 ... Statuses ... 568

  • 8.2 ... SAP Event Management ... 575

  • 8.2.1 ... Event Handlers and Event Messages ... 578

  • 8.2.2 ... Event Management Processes ... 584

  • 8.2.3 ... SAP Event Management Configuration ... 588

  • 8.2.4 ... Event Messages and Event Processing ... 601

  • 8.2.5 ... End User Interaction, Lists, and Background Processing ... 605

  • 8.2.6 ... Preconfigured Event Management Content ... 608

  • 8.2.7 ... Integrating SAP Event Management with Other Components ... 610

  • 9 ... Transportation Compliance ... 613

  • 9.1 ... SAP Global Trade Services ... 616

  • 9.1.1 ... Functionality Overview ... 618

  • 9.1.2 ... Integration of SAP GTS and SAP TM ... 622

  • 9.1.3 ... Export Compliance for Sanctioned Party Screening and Embargo Checks ... 626

  • 9.1.4 ... Export Customs Services ... 630

  • 9.1.5 ... Import Customs Services ... 636

  • 9.2 ... SAP Environment, Health, and Safety Management ... 639

  • 9.2.1 ... Dangerous Goods Regulations ... 640

  • 9.2.2 ... Dangerous Goods Classification ... 641

  • 9.2.3 ... Requirements for Dangerous Goods Checks in Transportation ... 642

  • 9.2.4 ... SAP ERP Master Data for Dangerous Goods and Shipper Handling ... 645

  • 9.2.5 ... Dangerous Goods-related Integration and Process Flow between SAP ERP and SAP TM ... 646

  • 9.2.6 ... Configuration of Dangerous Goods Checks for SAP TM ... 649

  • 9.2.7 ... Dangerous Goods Content Loader ... 651

  • 9.2.8 ... SAP TM Application Level Setup for Dangerous Goods Support ... 652

  • 9.2.9 ... Dangerous Goods Data and Checks in SAP TM ... 654

  • 10 ... Transportation Charge Management ... 657

  • 10.1 ... Charge Calculation Master Data ... 659

  • 10.1.1 ... Contract Management with Agreements ... 661

  • 10.1.2 ... Transportation Charge Calculation Sheet ... 671

  • 10.1.3 ... Rate Tables ... 677

  • 10.1.4 ... Service Products and Standard Operating Procedures ... 685

  • 10.2 ... Contract Determination ... 691

  • 10.2.1 ... Contract Determination Logic ... 692

  • 10.2.2 ... Setup of Contract Determination ... 696

  • 10.2.3 ... Preconditions for Contract Determination ... 697

  • 10.3 ... Charge Calculation Logic in Selling, Buying, and Internal Invoicing Processes ... 699

  • 10.3.1 ... Charge Calculation Logic for Selling and Buying Processes ... 700

  • 10.3.2 ... Charge Calculation for Air Freight ... 711

  • 10.3.3 ... Business Scenarios for Charge Calculation ... 716

  • 10.4 ... Strategic Customer and Vendor Contract Management ... 723

  • 10.4.1 ... Strategic Customer Management ... 725

  • 10.4.2 ... Strategic Freight Procurement ... 730

  • 11 ... Charge Settlement ... 745

  • 11.1 ... Charge Settlement and Billing ... 747

  • 11.1.1 ... Creating Forwarding Settlement Documents ... 748

  • 11.1.2 ... Structure of Forwarding Settlement Documents ... 757

  • 11.1.3 ... Integrating Forwarding Settlement Documents with SAP ERP Sales and Distribution ... 760

  • 11.1.4 ... Business Scenarios in the Forwarding Settlement Process ... 766

  • 11.1.5 ... Creating Freight Settlement Documents ... 771

  • 11.1.6 ... Structure of Freight Settlement Documents ... 774

  • 11.1.7 ... Integrating Freight Settlement Documents with SAP ERP Materials Management ... 776

  • 11.1.8 ... Credit Memos ... 787

  • 11.2 ... Cost Distribution and Internal Settlement ... 790

  • 11.2.1 ... Cost Distribution ... 792

  • 11.2.2 ... Internal Settlement ... 799

  • 11.2.3 ... Profitability Analysis ... 808

  • 11.3 ... Settlement with SAP Billing and Revenue Innovation Management ... 809

  • 12 ... Integration with Other Components ... 817

  • 12.1 ... Analytics ... 819

  • 12.1.1 ... Business Intelligence Content ... 822

  • 12.1.2 ... Data Provisioning and Operational Reporting ... 828

  • 12.1.3 ... Embedded Analytics with Business Context Viewer ... 835

  • 12.2 ... SAP EWM Integration ... 839

  • 12.2.1 ... Introduction to SAP EWM ... 842

  • 12.2.2 ... Integrating with SAP ERP ... 844

  • 12.2.3 ... Standard Integration Scenarios ... 846

  • 12.3 ... Collaborative Transportation Management ... 865

  • 12.3.1 ... Mobile Applications ... 866

  • 12.3.2 ... Collaboration Portal ... 873

  • 13 ... Transportation Processes for Shippers ... 877

  • 13.1 ... Overview of Scenarios ... 877

  • 13.1.1 ... Outsourced Transportation ... 878

  • 13.1.2 ... International Outbound Transportation ... 880

  • 13.1.3 ... International Inbound Logistics ... 883

  • 13.1.4 ... Domestic Inbound Transportation ... 885

  • 13.1.5 ... Domestic Outbound Transportation ... 887

  • 13.1.6 ... Shipper Scenarios Summary ... 889

  • 13.2 ... Shipper Scenario Configuration ... 890

  • 13.2.1 ... Basic Setup in SAP TM ... 891

  • 13.2.2 ... Basic Setup in SAP ERP ... 893

  • 13.2.3 ... Setup for Cost Distribution in SAP ERP ... 894

  • 13.2.4 ... Defining Master Data in SAP ERP ... 895

  • 13.2.5 ... Defining Master Data in SAP TM ... 896

  • 13.2.6 ... Order Management Customizing ... 898

  • 13.2.7 ... Configuration of Planning in SAP TM ... 900

  • 13.2.8 ... Freight Order Management Settings in SAP TM ... 904

  • 13.2.9 ... Configuration of Transportation Charge Management and Freight Settlement in SAP TM ... 908

  • 13.2.10 ... Configuration Summary ... 912

  • 13.3 ... Retail Scenario ... 913

  • 13.4 ... Conclusion ... 918

  • 14 ... Transportation Process for Less than Container Load in Ocean Freight ... 921

  • 14.1 ... Ocean Freight Process Overview ... 922

  • 14.2 ... Ocean Freight Process Configuration ... 927

  • 14.2.1 ... Partner and Organizational Master Data Setup ... 927

  • 14.2.2 ... Freight Order Management ... 929

  • 14.2.3 ... Schedule and Booking Setup ... 931

  • 14.2.4 ... Order Management Customizing ... 934

  • 14.2.5 ... Network and Planning Configuration ... 936

  • 14.2.6 ... Transportation Charge Management ... 938

  • 14.2.7 ... Settlement Configuration ... 942

  • 14.3 ... Running the Ocean Freight Process ... 942

  • 14.3.1 ... Export Process ... 943

  • 14.3.2 ... Import Process ... 956

  • 15 ... Transportation Process for Air Freight-Forwarding ... 965

  • 15.1 ... Air Freight Process Overview ... 965

  • 15.2 ... Air Freight Process Configuration ... 970

  • 15.2.1 ... Partner and Organizational Master Data Setup ... 970

  • 15.2.2 ... Organizational Setup ... 972

  • 15.2.3 ... Basic Customizing and Settings ... 973

  • 15.2.4 ... Flight Plans and Capacity Booking Types ... 976

  • 15.2.5 ... Order Management Customizing and Configuration ... 981

  • 15.2.6 ... Planning Configuration ... 982

  • 15.2.7 ... Subcontracting Configuration ... 984

  • 15.2.8 ... SAP TM Transportation Charge Management ... 985

  • 15.2.9 ... Settlement Configuration ... 988

  • 15.3 ... Running the Air Freight Process ... 989

  • 15.3.1 ... Creation of Capacity Bookings and Four-Week Flight Plan (Steps 1 and 2) ... 991

  • 15.3.2 ... Creation of Air Freight-Forwarding Orders and HAWBs (Steps 3–6) ... 992

  • 15.3.3 ... Pickup, Cargo Receipt, and Compliance (Steps 7–9) ... 995

  • 15.3.4 ... Pre-Carriage from Export Station to Gateway (Steps 10 and 11) ... 995

  • 15.3.5 ... Load Planning, MAWB Close, and Uplift (Steps 12, 13, and 15) ... 997

  • 15.3.6 ... Financial Processing in the Export Organization (Step 14) ... 999

  • 15.3.7 ... Import Handover and Transactional Processing (Step 16) ... 1001

  • 15.3.8 ... Import Cargo Handling and On-Carriage (Steps 17–20) ... 1001

  • 15.3.9 ... Cargo Delivery and Import Billing (Steps 21–27) ... 1002

  • 15.3.10 ... Final Process State ... 1003

  • 16 ... Implementation Best Practices ... 1005

  • 16.1 ... Best Practices for Implementing SAP TM ... 1006

  • 16.1.1 ... Large Transportation Management System Installations ... 1007

  • 16.1.2 ... Using Preconfigured Sample Scenarios ... 1009

  • 16.1.3 ... Using Rapid Deployment Solutions ... 1010

  • 16.1.4 ... Onboarding Customers in SAP TM Installations ... 1012

  • 16.1.5 ... Using Central Control Elements in SAP TM Setup ... 1014

  • 16.1.6 ... Optimizing the Sequence of SAP TM Configuration ... 1020

  • 16.1.7 ... Understanding SAP TM’s Strengths and Limitations ... 1023

  • 16.1.8 ... Enhancing SAP TM via Custom Development ... 1025

  • 16.2 ... Liner Shipping with SAP TM ... 1026

  • 16.2.1 ... Architecture and Functional Coverage of the Liner Solution ... 1027

  • 16.2.2 ... Specific Liner Enhancements and Add-ons ... 1037

  • 16.2.3 ... Enabling the End-to-End Liner Process ... 1042

  • 17 ... Summary and Outlook ... 1047

  • ... Appendices ... 1051

  • A ... Additional References ... 1053

  • B ... Abbreviations ... 1055

  • C ... The Authors ... 1061

  • ... Index ... 1065


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